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Солнечные батареи "светодиодного типа" демонстрируют рекордную эффективность

26 Апр 2012

Когда речь заходит о солнечных батареях, вы, наверное, думаете о материале, который должен поглощать как можно больше солнечного света. Тем не менее, некоторые фотоэлектрические элементы также способны излучать свет. Такими способностями обладает прототип нового устройства, создатели которого вдохновлялись технологией производства светодиодов. Новинка недавно установила рекордное КПД для однопереходного солнечного элемента.

Фотоэлектрическая ячейка была создана специалистами калифорнийской компании Alta Devices, со-основателем которой выступает профессор электротехники из Университета Калифорнии, Эли Яблонович. Вместе с аспирантом Оуэном Миллером ученый разработал математический принцип, который гласит: "чем эффективнее фотоэлектрическая ячейка излучает фотоны, тем выше выдаваемое ею напряжение и больше ее эффективность."

Прототип ячейки был создан при помощи полупроводников на основе арсенида галлия (GaAs). Электроны в этом материале могут выбиваться под воздействием энергии фотонов солнечного света. Поскольку электроны также выбиваются существующими протонами, в этом процессе формируются и дополнительные фотоны.

По сути, вышеприведенный принцип лежит в основе работы самых обычных солнечных батарей. Тем не менее, опытный образец ячейки позволяет новым протонам перемещаться как можно легче (в частности, с помощью зеркала с высокой отражающей способностью на задней поверхности), что в свою очередь повышает напряжение, которое способна выдавать фотоэлектрическая ячейка.

Эта технология позволила прототипу достичь КПД в 28,3%. Благодаря этому ученые побили предыдущий рекорд - 26%. Яблонович надеется, что другие исследователи, опираясь на его научные работы, смогут достичь эффективности на уровне 30% в течение нескольких ближайших лет.

Несмотря на то, что прототип с рекордным КПД был создан на базе однопереходного солнечного элемента (то есть он способен поглощать световые волны только с заданной частотой), используемый принцип, как говорят создатели, применим для всех типов солнечных батарей.

Источник: Портал Energysafe

Начало активности (дата): 26.04.2012 11:45:45

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