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Энергетический менеджмент - основа для реализации энергосервисных контрактов

3 Фев 2012

В статье Бегалова Владимира Анатольевича, заместителя директора ГБУ Свердловской области «Институт энергосбережения», приведены основные этапы формирования энергоменеджмента предприятия.

 Энергетический менеджмент целесообразно рассматривать как совокупность управленческих методов повышения энергоэффективности, в отличие от инженерных, технических, технологических и прочих. Выделяя управленческие (организационные, административные) способы влияния на энергетическую эффективность, следует понимать определенную условность такого деления. Очевидно, что лишь совокупность различных мер – как управленческих, так и следующих за ними технических, – индивидуально подобранная для каждого конкретного случая, даст оптимальный результат. В статье Бегалова Владимира Анатольевича, заместителя директора ГБУ Свердловской области «Институт энергосбережения», приведены основные этапы формирования энергоменеджмента предприятия.

     Сегодня абсолютно оправдан тезис о взаимозависимости энергоэффективности и надежности работы предприятия. В современных условиях, когда экономика глобализуется, границы рынков стираются, а индустрия так зависима от энергетических ресурсов и конъюнктуры рынков энергии, конкуренция все заметнее перемещается на поле энергоэффективности продукции и услуг, а долгосрочное преимущество получают именно те, кто сумел создать эффективную систему энергоменеджмента. Общепризнано, что энергетический менеджмент – важнейший элемент политики качества.

     Энергетический менеджмент целесообразно рассматривать как совокупность управленческих методов повышения энергоэффективности, в отличие от инженерных, технических, технологических и прочих. Выделяя управленческие (организационные, административные) способы влияния на энергетическую эффективность, следует понимать определенную условность такого деления. Очевидно, что лишь совокупность различных мер – как управленческих, так и следующих за ними технических, – индивидуально подобранная для каждого конкретного случая, даст оптимальный результат. Сами по себе инженерные решения и технические инновации также приведут к более эффективному использованию энергетических ресурсов на предприятии, однако, именно их подчинение выстроенной на предприятии управленческой системе сделает устойчивым как процесс повышения энергоэффективности, так и в целом функционирование компании.
Не раз отмечалось, насколько огромен и одновременно недорог в реализации организационный потенциал энергосбережения. Анализ принятой в Свердловской области Региональной программы повышения энергоэффективности позволяет говорить о том, что эффект от оргмероприятий и энергоменеджмента в 1,9 раза выше, чем в среднем по всем мероприятиям Программы, и в 2,2 раза – чем от технических и технологических мер.
     В более традиционном понимании энергетический менеджмент предусматривает ряд функций, выполнение которых дает объективную информацию об основных потребителях топлива и энергии, энергоэффективности различных процессов и отдельных видов продукции, резервах снижения энергопотребления.
Перечислим ключевые направления.
  • Институциональные изменения. Прежде всего, необходимо соответствующим образом изменить структуру управления организацией, в зависимости от ее величины и сложности. Из числа топ-менеджеров следует назначить ответственного за эту работу, наделив его полномочиями и предоставив ресурсы. Например, возможно создание на этапе планирования рабочей группы, которая могла бы скоординировать деятельность различных подразделений (производственных, финансовых, коммерческих и проч.), разработать необходимые процедуры, описать их регламентирующими документами.
  • Обучение персонала. О приоритете энергоэффективности необходимо соответствующим образом проинформировать как высший менеджмент, так и руководителей среднего звена, и рядовых сотрудников. В результате каждый должен четко понимать, как это отразится на его должностных обязанностях, в какие сроки и что он должен будет делать. Такое информирование – мера не единоразовая. От первого объявления о разворачивании работы по повышению энергоэффективности до отлаженного механизма и прозрачности в функциях и ответственности может пройти весьма значительное время, в течение которого необходимо будет проводить обучение и тренинги, разрабатывать инструкции и положения. Скорее всего, в первую очередь потребуется обучение общего плана, которое можно провести собственными силами – о необходимости и экономическом эффекте энергосбережения, о плане работы для этого и ожидаемых результатах. На следующем этапе, когда работа развернется в отдельных подразделениях, возникнет потребность в более узкоспециализированных знаниях, например, по использованию нового оборудования, эксплуатации приборов учета и регулирования, применению новых технологий и т.д. К реализации такого обучения, конечно, разумно привлечь профессионалов со стороны.
  • Стимулирование. Логичным продолжением работы с персоналом будут мотивационные и стимулирующие меры и даже механизмы для сотрудников и подразделений, добившихся лучших результатов в экономии ресурсов и энергии и повышении энергоэффективности. Даже в организациях бюджетной сферы новое законодательство предусматривает возможность направления сэкономленных бюджетных средств на цели премирования работников, способствовавших такой экономии.
  • Нельзя упустить важнейший момент – энергетическое обследование. Составленный и заполненный по его итогам энергетический паспорт. Энергетическое обследование будет, скорее всего, содержать и аудит договоров с поставщиками энергетических ресурсов, зачастую там есть что оптимизировать. Cтанет формальным результатом, однако важно проследить за его реальным наполнением. А именно – что прояснены участки, скрывающие основной потенциал энергосбережения, предложены рекомендации по его реализации. Желательно не просто типовые рекомендации, которые можно встретить на профильных сайтах, а индивидуальные, соответствующие конкретным условиям предприятия. Форма энергетического паспорта организации типовая и утверждается нормативно, однако предприятие-заказчик вправе наравне с энергопаспортом попросить энергоаудитора представить выявленные сведения и в других подходящих по ситуации формах. Когда в стране получит большее развитие практика энергосервисных контрактов, аудитор будет еще жестче отвечать за свои рекомендации. предприятия. Его нельзя отнести ни чисто к инженерным, ни к управленческим мероприятиям, как сложно переоценить его важность. Объектами энергообследования должны стать как здания, так и системы (например, в случае наличия собственной котельной), и технологические процессы. Именно энергоаудит покажет истинную картину происходящего в сфере потребления энергоресурсов. Согласно законодательству, проводить энергетический аудит вправе только компания, состоящая в одной из саморегулируемых организаций энергоаудиторов (такая система пришла на смену лицензированию деятельности в этой сфере и призвана гарантировать качество предоставляемой услуги).
  • Установка приборов учета. Самый банальный пункт, однако, как показывает практика, уже только факт мониторинга расхода энергии и затрат на нее дает их снижение за счет поведенческих и психологических аспектов. Если же к учету добавить регулирование, эффект значительно увеличивается. И эту меру также нельзя отнести исключительно к технологическим, поскольку она требует обучения персонала, а в ряде случаев и управленческой перестройки технологических, административных, бухгалтерских процессов. Кроме того, автоматизация в данном случае даст богатейший материал для анализа и предложения новых мер по снижению энергопотребления.
     Так кратко можно описать базовые меры энергетического менеджмента на предприятии. В то же время, энергоменеджмент как целостная система, выстроенная на предприятии под его конкретные нужды и условия (в отличие от отдельныхоргмероприятий), позволяет говорить о мультипликативном эффекте и значительном повышении результативности.Действительно, ведь система энергетического менеджмента, будучи однажды внедренной и выстроенной, не просто решает сиюминутные задачи, а позволяет впоследствии ожидать оперативной и адекватной реакции всех задействованных подразделений (по горизонтали) и уровней (по вертикали) управления предприятием на изменяющиеся внешние и внутренние условия.

     В то же время, финансовые затраты на внедрение энергоменеджмента обычно не столь высоки, как для реализации инженерно-технических мероприятий. Часто эксперты предлагают рассматривать эти вложенные средства не как убытки, а как инвестиции. Больше для успеха в данном случае востребованы другие – административные и интеллектуальные ресурсы, мотивация и организация.

     Целью внедрения системы энергетического менеджмента является повышение устойчивости (в том числе финансовой) предприятия, улучшение его конкурентных позиций как через снижение издержек и себестоимости продукции, так и через повышение эффективности менеджмента в целом.
Какие задачи решает внедрение системы энергетического менеджмента на предприятии?
- появление нового пласта управления компанией – управления потреблением энергии;
- вовлечение в этот процесс управленцев (руководителей подразделений), традиционно не задействованных в решении энергетических задач предприятия;
- создание путем регламентов, стандартов и документированных процедур такой системы управления энергией и энергозатратами на предприятии, которая обеспечит устойчивость и корректность принятия решений в меняющихся условиях.
     Один из простых, но финансово затратных способов наладить в компании энергоменеджмент – пригласить консалтинговую компанию, специализирующуюся в данном сегменте. Сегодня на рынке представлен целый ряд фирм, предлагающих услуги по внедрению, в т.ч., управления качеством по стандарту ISO 50001 DIN EN 16001 (Energymanagementsystems — Requirementswithguidanceforuse, Системы энергоменеджмента — Требования с руководством по использованию).

     Однако львиную долю работы менеджмент предприятия может провести самостоятельно. Чтобы получить представление о порядке действий и их составе, рассмотрим типовые этапы, по которым работают со своими клиентами консалтинговые компании (использованы материалы EnvidatecOst).

  1. Диагностический аудит: проверка практической деятельности предприятия на соответствие требованияммеждународного стандарта ISO 50001 DIN EN 16001 (документация, аудит систем (электроэнергия, тепло, сжатый воздух, охлаждение и кондиционирование, топливо и т.п.), наблюдения, интервью). Результат – выявление проблемных областей и рисков, формулировка выводов и рекомендаций.
  2. Обучение и вовлечение сотрудников предприятия в процесс энергетического менеджмента. Это может быть как высшее руководство, так и сотрудники, наделенные определенными полномочиями, например, внутренние аудиторы. В результате эти люди создадут и внедрят систему энергоменеджмента на предприятии, а затем и будут ею управлять.
  3. Планирование разработки системы энергоменеджмента для понимания объема работ, распределения сроков и ответственности. Назначается руководитель, ответственный за внедрение системы энергоменеджмента на предприятии, из числаруководителей структурных подразделений создаются рабочие группы по отдельным вопросам. Составляется список документов, которые необходимо разработать, с указанием ответственных и сроков. Затем на основе этих регламентирующих и процедурных документов разрабатывается план мероприятий по их реализации в практической деятельности компании.
  4. Разработка системы энергоменеджмента. Для прохождения сертификации по существующим стандартам необходимо разработать ряд обязательных элементов. Даже если цель сертификации не стоит, целесообразно, тем не менее, рассмотреть список этих элементов: разработанные политика и цели в области системы энергетического менеджмента; определение энергетических систем, определение процессов энергоменеджмента предприятия; формирование схем взаимодействия подразделений и взаимосвязей процессов; оценка энергоэффективности; разработка обязательной документации (в частности, руководства по энергоменеджменту).
  5. Внедрение системы энергоменеджмента. Реализация разработанной модели на практике: информирование персонала о требованиях, ответственности, полномочиях; реализация мероприятий, предусмотренных в созданных на предыдущем этапе документах по энергоменеджменту; практическое выстраивание взаимодействия подразделений; мониторинг систем – потребителей топлива и энергии.
  6. Внутренние аудиты. Анализ результативности и определение возможностей улучшения системы энергоменеджмента.
     В случае, если предприятие намерено пройти сертификацию, за этими этапами последует предсертификационный аудит для определения готовности к ней. После чего предприятие выходит на собственно сертификационный аудитна соответствие требованиям международного стандарта ISO 50001 DIN EN 16001, который проводится независимым международным сертифицирующим органом.

     В необходимости заниматься созданием системы энергоменеджмента на предприятии можно сомневаться и откладывать начало этой работы, однако рискну высказать тезис, что выполнение энергосервисного контракта невозможно в компании, где нет выстроенной системы энергетического менеджмента. Однако связь энергосервиса с энергоменеджментом – отдельная тема.

     В заключении следует отметить, что внедренная адекватная система энергетического менеджмента на предприятии, включающая в себя такие разделы как энергетическое обследование, энергетический мониторинг и планирование не только обеспечивают экономию энергетических ресурсов за счет организационных мероприятий, но и создают предпосылки для выполнения энергосервисных контрактов по технической и технологической модернизации предприятия. Представители энергосервисной компании должны быть уверены в объективности данных о достигнутом уровне и динамике энергопотребления предприятия в предшествующий период, в достоверности информации о потреблении энергетических ресурсов, а также в наличии обученного персонала и технически грамотной системы эксплуатации оборудования.
                                                                                                Источник: Правительство Республики Татарстан

Начало активности (дата): 03.02.2012 10:15:55

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Compare Business Energy | Gas and Electricity
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[CENTER][/CENTER][CENTER]Population
million[/CENTER][CENTER]Prim. energy
TWh[/CENTER][CENTER]Production
TWh[/CENTER][CENTER]Import
TWh[/CENTER][CENTER]Electricity
TWh[/CENTER][CENTER]CO2-emission
Mt[/CENTER][LEFT]2004[/LEFT][LEFT]2007[/LEFT][LEFT]2008[/LEFT][LEFT]2009[/LEFT][LEFT]2010[/LEFT][LEFT]2012[/LEFT][LEFT]2012R[/LEFT][LEFT]2013[/LEFT][LEFT]2014[/LEFT][LEFT]2015[/LEFT][LEFT]2016[/LEFT][LEFT]Change 2004-16[/LEFT][LEFT]Mtoe = 11.63 TWh>, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power[15]2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated
[/LEFT][/RIGHT]As recently as 2004, the UK was a net exporter of energy, however by 2010, more than 25% of UK energy was imported.

0  
Energy in the United Kingdom
Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2,249 TWh (193.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2014.[1] This equates to energy consumption per capita of 34.82 MWh (3.00 tonnes of oil equivalent) compared to a 2010 world average of 21.54 MWh (1.85 tonnes of oil equivalent).[2] Demand for electricity in 2014 was 34.42GW on average[3] (301.7TWh over the year) coming from a total electricity generation of 335.0TWh.[4]



Successive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. One such announcement was the Low Carbon Transition Plan launched by the Brown ministry in July 2009, which aimed to generate 30% electricity from renewable sources, and 40% from low carbon content fuels by 2020. Notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy, and wind power production is its fastest growing supply.[5][6][7] Wind power contributed 15% of UK electricity generation in 2017.[8]



Government commitments to reduce emissions are occurring against a backdrop of economic crisis across Europe.[9] During the European financial crisis, Europe's consumption of electricity shrank by 5%, with primary production also facing a noticeable decline. Britain's trade deficit was reduced by 8% due to substantial cuts in energy imports.[10] Between 2007 and 2015, the UK's peak electrical demand fell from 61.5 GW to 52.7.GW.[11][12]



UK government energy policy aims to play a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions, whilst meeting energy demand. Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies also change the country's energy mix through changes in costs. In 2018, the United Kingdom was ranked 6th in the World on the Environmental Performance Index,[13] which measures how well a country carries through environmental policy.






Overview[edit]
[RIGHT]Energy in the United Kingdom [14]
59.82,7182,619135371537
60.82,4582,050522373523
61.42,4241,939672372511
61.82,2881,848641352466
62.22,3551,730705357484
62.72,1871,507843346443
63.72,2361,3661,011347457
64.12,2211,2801,099347449
64.6???304442
65.1???304404
65.7?1,465?304381
10%?-44%?-18%-29%
2015 fuel taxes, in pounds[16]
[CENTER][/CENTER][CENTER]Diesel[/CENTER][CENTER]Gasoline[/CENTER][CENTER]Natural gas[/CENTER][CENTER]Coal[/CENTER][CENTER]Electricity[/CENTER][CENTER]per unit[/CENTER][CENTER]litre[/CENTER][CENTER]litre[/CENTER][CENTER]m3[/CENTER][CENTER]MWh[/CENTER][CENTER]tonne[/CENTER][CENTER]MWh[/CENTER]
Excise?0.4682
Environment1.9315.125.54

######Energy sources


Fossil fuel consumption in the UK. Since the 1990s, coal use declined while natural gas use increased.
Oil
Main article: Oil and gas industry in the United Kingdom
Concerns over peak oil have been raised by high-profile voices in the United Kingdom such as Sir David King[17] and the Industry Task-Force on Peak Oil and Energy Security.[18] The latter's 2010 report states that "The next five years will see us face another crunch - the oil crunch. This time, we do have the chance to prepare. The challenge is to use that time well." (Sir Richard Branson and Ian Marchant).[19]

Natural gas
United Kingdom produced 60% of its consumed natural gas in 2010. In five years the United Kingdom moved from almost gas self-sufficient (see North Sea gas) to 40% gas import in 2010. Gas was almost 40% of total primary energy supply (TPES) and electricity more than 45% in 2010. Underground storage was about 5% of annual demand and more than 10% of net imports. There is an alternative fuel obligation in the United Kingdom.[20] (see Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation)

Gasfields include Amethyst gasfield, Armada gasfield, Easington Catchment Area, East Knapton, Everest gasfield and Rhum gasfield.

A gas leak occurred in March 2012 at the Elgin-Franklin fields, where about 200,000 cubic metres of gas was escaping every day. Total missed out on about £83m of potential income.[21]

Coal
See also: List of active coal fired power stations in the United Kingdom
Coal power in England and Wales has reduced substantially in the beginning of the twenty-first century. The power stations known as the Hinton Heavies closed, and closure or conversion to biomass of the remaining coal plants is planned to complete by 2025.

Electricity production from coal in 2018 was less than any time since the industrial revolution, with the first "coal free day" in 2017 and the first coal free week in 2019.[22] Coal supplied 5.4% of UK electricity in 2018, down from 7% in 2017, 9% in 2016, 23% in 2015 and 30% in 2014.[23]

Nuclear
Main article: Nuclear power in the United Kingdom

Heysham nuclear power stations
Britain's fleet of operational reactors consists of 14 advanced gas-cooled reactors on six discrete sites, and one PWR unit at Sizewell B. Overall, the installed nuclear capacity in the United Kingdom is about 9 GW.[24] In addition, the UK experimented with Fast Breeder reactor technologies at Dounreay in Scotland; however the last fast breeder (with 250MWe of capacity) was shut down in 1994.[25]

Even with changes to the planning system to speed nuclear power plant applications, there are doubts over whether the necessary timescale could be met to increase nuclear power output, and over the financial viability of nuclear power with present oil and gas prices. With no nuclear plants having been constructed since Sizewell B in 1995, there are also likely to be capacity issues within the native nuclear industry. The existing privatised nuclear supplier, British Energy, had been in financial trouble in 2004.

In October 2010 the coalition British Government gave the go-ahead for the construction of up to eight new nuclear power plants.[26] However, the Scottish Government, with the backing of the Scottish Parliament, has stated that no new nuclear power stations will be constructed in Scotland.[27][28]

Renewable energy
Main article: Renewable energy in the United Kingdom
In 2007, the United Kingdom Government agreed to an overall European Union target of generating 20% of the European Union's energy supply from renewable sources by 2020. Each European Union member state was given its own allocated target; for the United Kingdom it is 15%. This was formalised in January 2009 with the passage of the EU Renewables Directive. As renewable heat and fuel production in the United Kingdom are at extremely low bases, RenewableUK estimates that this will require 35–40% of the United Kingdom's electricity to be generated from renewable sources by that date,[29] to be met largely by 33–35 GW of installed wind capacity.

The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for 14.9% of the electricity generated in the United Kingdom in 2013,[30] reaching 53.7 TWh of electricity generated.

In June 2017 renewables plus nuclear generated more UK power than gas and coal together for the first time. In 2017 new offshore wind power became cheaper than new nuclear power for the first time.[31]

Wind power
Main article: Wind power in the United Kingdom
Further information: Wind power in the European Union

Burbo Bank Offshore Wind Farm
In December 2007, the United Kingdom Government announced plans for a massive expansion of wind energy production, by conducting a Strategic Environmental Assessment of up to 25 GW worth of wind farm offshore sites in preparation for a new round of development. These proposed sites were in addition to the 8 GW worth of sites already awarded in the 2 earlier rounds of site allocations, Round 1 in 2001 and Round 2 in 2003. Taken together it was estimated that this would result in the construction of over 7,000 offshore wind turbines.[32]

Wind power delivers a growing fraction of the energy in the United Kingdom and at the beginning of November 2018, wind power in the United Kingdom consisted of nearly 10,000 wind turbines with a total installed capacity of just over 20 gigawatts: 12,254 megawatts of onshore capacity and 7,897 megawatts of offshore capacity.[33]

Solar

Solar panels on the BedZED development in the London Borough of Sutton

Solar farm and colliery in North Yorkshire in 2017
Main article: Solar power in the United Kingdom
At the end of 2011, there were 230,000 solar power projects in the United Kingdom,[34] with a total installed generating capacity of 750 megawatts (MW).[35] By February 2012 the installed capacity had reached 1,000 MW.[36] Solar power use has increased very rapidly in recent years, albeit from a small base, as a result of reductions in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels, and the introduction of a Feed-in tariff (FIT) subsidy in April 2010.[34] In 2012, the government said that 4 million homes across the UK will be powered by the sun within eight years,[37] representing 22,000 MW of installed solar power capacity by 2020.[34]

Biofuels
Main article: Biofuel in the United Kingdom
Gas from sewage and landfill (biogas) has already been exploited in some areas. In 2004 it provided 129.3 GW·h (up 690% from 1990 levels), and was the UK's leading renewable energy source, representing 39.4% of all renewable energy produced (including hydro).[38] The UK has committed to a target of 10.3% of renewable energy in transport to comply with the Renewable Energy Directive of the European Union but has not yet implemented legislation to meet this target.

Other biofuels can provide a close-to-carbon-neutral energy source, if locally grown. In South America and Asia, the production of biofuels for export has in some cases resulted in significant ecological damage, including the clearing of rainforest. In 2004 biofuels provided 105.9 GW·h, 38% of it wood. This represented an increase of 500% from 1990.[39]

Geothermal power
Main article: Geothermal power in the United Kingdom
Investigations into the exploitation of Geothermal power in the United Kingdom, prompted by the 1973 oil crisis, were abandoned as fuel prices fell. Only one scheme is operational, in Southampton. In 2004 it was announced that a further scheme would be built to heat the UK's first geothermal energy model village near Eastgate, County Durham.[40]

Hydroelectric
Main article: Hydroelectricity in the United Kingdom

The Dinorwig Power Station lower reservoir, a 1,800 MW pumped-storage hydroelectric scheme, in north Wales, and the largest hydroelectric power station in the UK
As of 2012, hydroelectric power stations in the United Kingdom accounted for 1.67 GW of installed electrical generating capacity, being 1.9% of the UK's total generating capacity and 14% of UK's renewable energy generating capacity. Annual electricity production from such schemes is approximately 5,700 GWh, being about 1.5% of the UK's total electricity production.[41]

There are also pumped-storage power stations in the UK. These power stations are net consumers of electrical energy however they contribute to balancing the grid, which can facilitate renewable generation elsewhere, for example by 'soaking up' surplus renewable output at off-peak times and release the energy when it is required.

Electricity sector
Main article: Electricity sector in the United Kingdom

Electricity supplied (net) 1948 to 2008[42]

UK electricity production by source 1980-2018[43][44][45][46]
History
With the development of the national grid, the switch to using electricity, United Kingdom electricity consumption increased by around 150% between the post-war nationalisation of the industry in 1948 and the mid-1960s. During the 1960s growth slowed as the market became saturated. The United Kingdom is planning to reform its electricity market, see also Decarbonisation measures in proposed UK electricity market reform. It plans to introduce a capacity mechanism and contracts for difference to encourage the building of new generation.

During the 1940s some 90% of the electricity generation was by coal, with oil providing most of the remainder.


The former Battersea Power Station
The United Kingdom started to develop nuclear power capacity in the 1950s, with Calder Hall nuclear power station being connected to the grid on 27 August 1956. Though the production of weapons-grade plutonium was the main reason behind this power station, other civil stations followed, and 26% of the nation's electricity was generated from nuclear power at its peak in 1997.

Despite the flow of North Sea oil from the mid-1970s, electricity generation from oil remained relatively small and continued to decline.

Starting in 1993, and continuing through the 1990s, a combination of factors led to a so-called Dash for Gas, during which the use of coal was scaled back in favour of gas-fuelled generation. This was sparked by the privatisation of the National Coal Board, British Gas and the Central Electricity Generating Board; the introduction of laws facilitating competition within the energy markets; and the availability of cheap gas from the North Sea. In 1990 just 1.09% of all gas consumed in the country was used in electricity generation; by 2004 the figure was 30.25%.[47]

By 2004, coal use in power stations had fallen to 50.5 million tonnes, representing 82.4% of all coal used in 2004 (a fall of 43.6% compared to 1980 levels), though up slightly from its low in 1999.[47] On several occasions in May 2016, Britain burned no coal for electricity for the first time since 1882.[48][49] On 21 April 2017, Britain went a full day without using coal power for the first time since the Industrial Revolution, according to the National Grid.[50]

From the mid-1990s new renewable energy sources began to contribute to the electricity generated, adding to a small hydroelectricity generating capacity.

Electricity generation
In 2016, total electricity production stood at 357 TWh (down from a peak of 385 TWh in 2005), generated from the following sources:[51][52]


A typical offshore oil/gas platform
Gas: 40.2% (0.05% in 1990)
Nuclear: 20.1% (19% in 1990)
Wind: 10.6% (0% in 1990), of which:
Onshore Wind: 5.7%
Offshore Wind: 4.9%
Coal: 8.6% (67% in 1990)
Bio-Energy: 8.4% (0% in 1990)
Solar: 2.8% (0% in 1990)
Hydroelectric: 1.5% (2.6% in 1990)
Oil and other: 7.8% (12% in 1990)
The UK energy policy had targeted a total contribution from renewable energy to achieve 10% by 2010, but it was not until 2012 that this figure was exceeded; renewable energy sources supplied 11.3% (41.3 TWh) of the electricity generated in the United Kingdom in 2012.[53] The Scottish Government had a target of generating 17% to 18% of Scotland's electricity from renewables by 2010,[54] rising to 40% by 2020.[55]

Regional differences
See also: Energy policy of Scotland
While in some ways limited by which powers are devolved, the four nations of the United Kingdom have different energy mixes and ambitions. Scotland currently has a target of 80% of electricity from renewables by 2020, which was increased from an original ambition of 50% by 2020 after it exceeded its interim target of 31 per cent by 2011.[56] Scotland has most of the UK's hydro-electric power generation facilities. It has a quarter of the EU's estimated offshore wind potential,[57] and is at the forefront of testing various marine energy systems.[58]

Cogeneration
Main article: District heating § United_Kingdom

District heating accumulator tower, Pimlico
Combined heat and power (CHP) plants, where 'waste' hot water from generating is used for district heating, are also a well tried technology in other parts of Europe. While it heats about 50% of all houses in Denmark, Finland, Poland, Sweden and Slovakia, it currently only plays a small role in the United Kingdom. It has, however, been rising, with total generation standing at 27.9 TWh by 2008. This consisted of 1,439 predominantly gas-fired schemes with a total CHP electrical generating capacity of 5.47 GW, and contributing 7% of the UK's electricity supply.[42] Heat generation utilisation has fallen however from a peak of 65 TWh in 1991 to 49 TWh in 2012.

Energy research
Historically, public sector support for energy research and development in the United Kingdom has been provided by a variety of bodies with little co-ordination between them. Problems experienced have included poor continuity of funding, and the availability of funding for certain parts of the research—development—commercialisation process but not others. Levels of public funding have also been low by international standards, and funding by the private sector has also been limited.[citation needed]

Research in the area of energy is carried out by a number of public and private sector bodies:

The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council funds an energy programme[59] spanning energy and climate change research. It aims to "develop, embrace and exploit sustainable, low carbon and/or energy efficient technologies and systems" to enable the United Kingdom "to meet the Government’s energy and environmental targets by 2020". Its research includes renewable, conventional, nuclear and fusion electricity supply as well as energy efficiency, fuel poverty and other topics.

Since being established in 2004, the UK Energy Research Centre[60] carries out research into demand reduction, future sources of energy, infrastructure and supply, energy systems, sustainability and materials for advanced energy systems.

The Energy Technologies Institute, set up to 'accelerate the development of secure, reliable and cost-effective low-carbon energy technologies towards commercial deployment', began its work in 2007 and is due to close at the end of 2019.[61]

In relation to buildings, the Building Research Establishment[62] carries out some research into energy conservation.

There is currently international research being conducted into fusion power. The ITER reactor is currently being constructed at Cadarache in France. The United Kingdom contributes towards this project through membership of the European Union. Prior to this, an experimental fusion reactor (the Joint European Torus) had been built at Culham in Oxfordshire.

Energy efficiency
The United Kingdom government has instituted several policies intended to promote an increase in efficient energy use. These include the roll out of smart meters, the Green Deal, the CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme, the Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme[63] and Climate Change Agreements.

In tackling the energy trilemma, saving energy is the cheapest of all measures. The Guardian newspaper reported that in 2012 that by 2050, Germany projects a 25% drop in electricity demand: the UK projects a rise of up to 66%. MP and Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Ed Davey pointed out in November 2012 that a modest 10% reduction in 2030 means five fewer power stations and £4bn cut from bills.[64]

The UK government has implemented measures aimed at cutting the UK's energy use by 11% (around 196TWh) by 2020. If achieved, this improvement would be sufficient to replace 22 UK power stations, while possibly providing a boost to the economy and living standards.[65]

Climate change
[icon]
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2019)
The Committee on Climate Change publishes an annual progress report in respect to control the climate change in the United Kingdom.

Scotland cut greenhouse gas emissions by around 46% between 1990 and 2014.[66] Scotland aims to have a carbon-free electricity sector based on renewable energy sources by 2032. Scotland also aims to repair 250,000 hectares of degraded peatlands, which store a total of 1.7 gigatonnes of CO2.[67]

See also
icon Energy portal
flag United Kingdom portal
Compulsory Stock Obligation
Energy policy of the United Kingdom
Economy of the United Kingdom
Energy conservation in the United Kingdom
Energy switching services in the UK
Greenhouse gas emissions by the United Kingdom
Meter Point Administration Number
Renewable energy by country



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_in_the_United_Kingdom
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