Статьи

Потенциал развития биоэнергетики в республике Беларусь

16 Дек 2011

Использование отходов растениеводства в качестве топлива является принципиально новым направлением энергосбережения. Практический опыт их применения в качестве энергоносителя накоплен в Бельгии и Скандинавских странах, а в нашей республике опыт массового применения отсутствует.

Отходы растениеводства

Общий потенциал отходов растениеводства оценивается до 1,46 млн. тут в год. Целесообразные объемы их сжигания для топливных целей следует решать в сопоставлении с конкретными нуждами хозяйств в индивидуальном порядке, а к концу прогнозируемого периода (2005 г.) эта величина не превысит 20 тыс. тут.

Биогаз из отходов животноводства

Результаты испытаний биогазовых установок для производства биогаза из отходов животноводческих комплексов подтвердили требование комплексной оценки их эффективности, так как их использование только для получения биогаза экономически не конкурентоспособно с другими видами топлива. Основная составляющая эффекта состоит в том, что без дополнительных энергетических затрат можно получить экологически чистое высококачественное органическое удобрение и вследствие этого пропорционально сократить энергоемкое производство минеральных удобрений. Применение биогазовых установок позволит существенно улучшить экологическую обстановку вблизи крупных ферм и животноводческих комплексов, а также на посевных площадях, куда в настоящее время сбрасываются отходы животноводства. Потенциально возможное получение товарного биогаза от животноводческих комплексов составляет 160 тыс. тут в год, а к 2005 г. не более 15 тыс. тут.

Дрова и древесные отходы

Централизованная заготовка дров и отходов деревообработки осуществляется предприятиями Министерства лесного хозяйства и концерна "Беллесбумпром". Наряду с использованием отходов деревообработки для получения тепла целесообразно предусмотреть экономически обоснованное вовлечение лигнина в топливный баланс республики. В целом по республике годовой объем использования дров и отходов лесопиления составлял около 1,0-1,1 млн. тут. Часть дров поступает населению за счет самозаготовок, объем которых оценивается на уровне 0,3-0,4 млн. тут. Предельные возможности республики по использованию дров в качестве топлива можно определить, исходя из естественного годового прироста древесины, который приближенно оценивается в 25 млн. куб.м или 6,6 млн. тут. в год, в т.ч. в загрязненных районах Гомельской области 20 тыс.куб.м или 5,3 тыс.т У.т. Для использования древесины из данных районов в качестве топлива необходимо разработать и внедрить технологии и оборудование по газификации и параллельной дезактивации. Исходя из планируемого к 2015 г. Роста заготовок древесины в 2 раза, а также с учетом увеличения объемов использования отходов деревообработки, лесопиления и переработки древесины прогнозируемый годовой объем древесного топлива к 2005 г. может возрасти до 1,6 млн. тут.

Фитомасса

В качестве сырья для получения жидкого и газообразного топлива можно применять периодически возобновляемый источник энергии фитомассу быстрорастущих растений и деревьев. В климатических условиях республики с 1 га энергетических плантаций собирается масса растений в количестве до 10 т сухого вещества, что эквивалентно примерно 5 тут. При дополнительных агроприемах продуктивность гектара может быть повышена в 2 раза. Из этого количества фитомассы можно получить 5-7 т жидких продуктов эквивалентных нефти. Наиболее целесообразно использовать для получения сырья площади выработанных торфяных месторождений, на которых отсутствуют условия для произрастания сельскохозяйственных культур. Площадь таких месторождений в республике составляет около 180 тыс.га, которая может стать стабильным, экологически чистым источником энергетического сырья в объеме до 1,3 млн. тут в год. Отсутствие опыта массового использования фитомассы для энергетических целей не позволяет сделать оценку затрат и будущих цен на топливо, т. к. для этой цели потребуется разработка специальной техники, дорожная инфраструктура, перерабатывающие предприятия и т.д. Однако по укрупненным расчетам цена составит около 35$/тут За счет названного источника к 2005 г. может быть получено не более 20 тыс. тут. Вопросы цены и объемов требуют уточнения после освоения опытных площадей, которые засеяны в Гомельской области.
Рис. 1. Прогноз суммарного потребления топлива в Беларуси (ПДж).



Рис. 2. Возможный сценарий потребления элеткроэнергии.


Позиция экспертов НПО

Ежегодно в Беларуси прирастает до 30 млн. плотных куб.м биомассы естественным образом и производится 6-8 млн. тонн соломы, из которой используется только половина. Расчетная лесосека к 2010 г составляет около 10 млн. куб.м по главному пользованию. Использование производимых в настоящее время отходов деревообработки и сельского хозяйства в качестве топлива может обеспечить не менее 3 млн. тут, а при развитии инфраструктуры эта величина может возрасти до 10 млн. тут. Использование технологий производства жидкого биотоплива (рапс, спирты) может решить проблему обеспечения топливом транспорта и увеличить использование биомассы в топливном балансе страны.


Источник: http://reenergy.by/

Начало активности (дата): 16.12.2011

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